Component Authors

Component Originally Developed by:

Assigned Institution: Duke University

Team Lead(s):

  • Kathy Giannangelo, MA, RHIA, CCS, CPHIMS, FAHIMA, Pitt Community College

Primary Contributing Authors:

  • Constance M. Johnson, MS, PhD, RN, Duke University
  • Sandra Crockett, RHIA, Pitt Community College
  • Lecture Narration

Raland Technologies LLC

David Flass – Project Manager

Team Members:

Brian Reynolds, PhD , Project Lead, Duke University

Component Updated by:

Assigned Institution: Normandale Community College

Team Lead(s):

  • Sunny Ainley, BA, BBA, Normandale Community College

Primary Contributing Authors:

  • Joe Wivoda, MS, CHTS-IM, National Rural Health Resource Center
  • Sunny Ainley, BA, BBA, Principal Investigator, Associate Dean, Normandale Community College
  • Tracy Mastel, Project Manager, Program Director, Normandale Community College

Creative Commons

 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit

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Share — to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

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Courtesy of (name of university that created the work) and the ONC Health IT program.

NonCommercial – You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
Note: Use of these materials is considered “non-commercial” for all educational institutions, for educational purposes, including tuition-based courses, continuing educations courses, and fee-based courses. The selling of these materials is not permitted. Charging tuition f a course shall not be considered commercial use.

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You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.

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These materials were prepared under the sponsorship of an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

Likewise, the above also applies to the Curriculum Development Centers (including Columbia University, Duke University, Johns Hopkins University, Oregon Health & Science University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and their affiliated entities) and Workforce Training Programs (including Bellevue College, Columbia University, Johns Hopkins University, Normandale Community College, Oregon Health & Science University, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, and their affiliated entities).

The information contained in the Health IT Workforce Curriculum materials is intended to be accessible to all. To help make this possible, the materials are provided in a variety of file formats. For more information, please visit the website of the ONC Workforce Development Programs at to view the full accessibility statement.


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